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The design of the radar, in particular the radar waveform, needs to be considered together with the design of the detection algorithms. Conventially, radar detectors are typically working on one spatial channel and looking fpr targets along both range and Doppler. Thereafter, angular estimation is made using monopulse.
To obtain a predictible behavior of the target detection probability, Constant False Alarm Detectors employed for radar systems are crucial. The most common one used is Cell averaging CFAR detectors that is oftenly used as a baseline comparison for other CFAR techniques.
Space time adaptive processing (STAP) were introduced to the radar community in 1973 by Brennan and Reed.
The basic dilemma of STAP is that: there is almost never enough training data to estimate the interference reliably! The main reason for this problem is the heterogeneous nature of the clutter, i.e. the clutter signal in one range bin may be quite different from the signals in surrounding range gates.
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is an extension of the SIMO that is the STAP case. Using this we also are able to create a virtual receiver array by the use of the several transmitting apertures, i.e., we both have steering vectors at both transmit and receive. Typically, detection & estimation performance losses are obtained since the transmit steering is more or less unknown. Thus, this is the reason that some experts (e.g., Fred Daum at Raytheon) denote the MIMO concept for
snake-oil signal processing frameworks, i.e., we will not gain any performance, only higher computational demands.
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